Electrical Connection Types For Homes , Single Phase and three phase connection

Types Of Electricity Connections

What Is Single And Three Phase Electricity Connection ?

The electricity distribution company basically offers two main types of electricity connections. The choice of the connection type depends upon the total peak demand of electricity.

Different types of electric connections are used to supply the electricity to your home.  The knowledge of types of electric connections is required to design the electrical wiring layout for the interior spaces.

The architect has to plan the interior design and the electrical wiring layout of the building keeping in mind the type of the electric supply connection.

The type of the electric connection required for the house depends upon the demand of the estimated electric power load.

Type Of Electricity Connection Single Phase, Types Of Electricity Connections
Type Of Electricity Connection Three Phase

The power load or the estimated peak demand of electricity depends upon the number of electrical gadgets connected to the electricity connection. And therefore, the electrical load calculation for each room is done at the planning stage.

In this  tutorial, you will learn the basic difference between different types of electrical connections used for the residential purpose, what is single phase and three phase supply connection.

This tutorial also covers the calculation for the electricity demand estimation and how to plan the interior electrical wiring layout based on the type of connection.

Before we dive into the main topic, let us first start with the basic fundamental concepts and the terminology.

Types Of Electricity Connections

What Is Phase And Neutral ?

The electricity supply connection provided by the electricity distribution company has two types of wires.

The electricity supplied to your home consists of two types of wires. The first type of wire is called phase and the second type of wire is called neutral.

What Is Phase Line ?

The term phase is used in the context of alternate current ( AC ). The electric power generated by the power plans is sent to destination consumer through four cables.

Out of the four cables , the three cables carry electric current and referred as phase lines or live wires and the forth cable is called a neutral line.

Each cable carry alternate electric current with same RMS value but with the different phase angle ( R type , B type , Y type ).

How Electricity Reaches Your Home

For residential electric supply connection, your home can be connected to any one of the phase line or all three phase line depending upon the connection you opt for.

The phase line is also alternately referred as live wire and hot wire. It is the phase wire that indicates light when it is touched by the current tester ( type of phase indicator ).

On the three pin socket , the phase line is connected to the bottom right pin. For some electrical gadgets , the phase line must be on right hand side.

Types Of Electricity Connections

What Is Neutral Line ?

It is the neutral wire helps to complete the circuit. Any electric home appliance needs both phase and neutral connection to work.

In simple words, the electric pole outside your home carry four wires which include three phase wires and the fourth wire is a neutral wire.

Your home is connected to the outside electric pole through a cable. In this cable one wire ( Red Color ) is a phase and another wire ( Black color ) is the neutral wire. 

On the three pin socket, the neutral  line is connected to the bottom left pin. For some electrical gadgets , the neutral line must be on right hand side.

Important

The color code used for the identification of phase and neutral lines is not the same for all countries. And therefore, please refer to your color code applicable for your country.

What Is Earthing Line ?

The term earthing with reference the home electrical wiring refers to establishing a wired connection to ground ( earth ).

All the high wattage electrical gadgets such as fridge, air conditioner ( AC ) , water heater , room heater , centralized AC and other such devices are also connected to the earthing wire as measure of safety.

The earthing is a safety mechanism that provides protection to the user and the electrical gadget in the event of any short circuit or current leakage.

Earthing Line On Electric Board, Types Of Electricity Connections

The electrical earthing is provided by embedding a copper earthing plate into the ground outside the building. Earthing must be done as per the recommended process to ensure its proper working.

The earth wire ( Green wire ) is brought to the main control panel ( distribution box ) for its further distribution to the electric power points in the various rooms as per requirement.

On the three pin socket, the earthing  line is connected to the top large size pin. For all electrical gadgets, the earthing line must be connected to the top central large size pin.

Types Of Electricity Connections

Types Of Electricity Connections

The electric wiring layout for a house can be designed with two commonly used type of electricity supply connections.

The type of the electricity connection required for a house depends upon the estimated peak demand of the electricity.  

There are two types of electricity supply connections.

  1. Single Phase Connection.
  2. Three Phase Connection.

What Is Single Phase Connection ?

Most electricity home connections fall under single phase connection type. The single phase connection cable that connects your home with the external electric pole will have two wires.

In single phase connection, the first wire ( Red ) will be a phase wire that carries the electric current. And the second wire ( Black ) is called a neutral wire that is necessary to complete the circuit.

However, all high wattage electric gadgets are also connected to the third wire called earthing or grounding line. The earthing is different from the neutral line.

What Is Single Phase Connection

Types Of Electricity Connections

What Is Three Phase Connection ?

In some situations, the demand of electricity is very high. For example,  a very big residential house or complex or a commercial activity.

In such cases, the single phase connection would not be sufficient and might be overloaded. And therefore, for such high demand consumer, a three phase connection is recommended.

The three phase connection cable that connects your home with external electric pole will have four wires. This includes the three phase wires and one neutral line.

In three phase connection, the first three wires ( Refer to your country color code for L1, L2 , L3 phase lines  ) will be a phase wire that carries the electric current. And the fourth wire is called a neutral wire that helps to complete the circuit.

What Is Three Phase Connection

With the three phase connection, it becomes much easier to distribute the overall electrical load without exceeding the safety limits.

The three phase supply, the electrical wiring would still remain the same. However,  in three phase connection, you will have total three phase wires available in the distribution control panel.

All high wattage electric gadgets are also connected to another  wire called the earthing or grounding line. The earthing is different from the neutral line.

Types Of Electricity Connections

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